Substation Training Series
The Substation Training Series will consist of four (4) highly specialized sessions specifically designed for substation personnel and other crews who work in and around substations. . Each two-day session will focus on different aspects of substation safety, inspection, testing and maintenance. The sessions will provide participants with in-depth instruction on substation-related topics and will be tailored to the specific equipment of attendees where possible.
Session 1 Substation Safety Awareness Basics
- Substation safety awareness
a. General substation hazards
b. Minimum approach distances
c. Step and touch potentials
d. Substation equipment operational safety
e. Breaker safety, breaker racking, transformers, bus work, PTs, etc.
f. Energized and non-energized work with rubber gloves and switch sticks
- Substation components- Overview of their function and operation
d. High side breaker/circuit switcher
e. Switches- Review various types of disconnect switches located throughout the substation.
f. Metering Equipment (PT and CT’s)
g. Voltage regulators
h. Load Tap Changer (LTC)
i. Various relays (differences between transmission and distribution relays)
j. Reclosers and breakers
k. Capacitor systems
l. SCADA equipment
m. lightning arresters
n. Grounding equipment and switches.
o. Automatic Transfer Switch (AC and DC)
p. Substation grounding systems.
q. Buss configurations
- General NREC requirements relating to substations and transmission lines.
- Switching and tagging substation components (1 day)
a. Switching procedures- equipment clearance procedures
b. Personal protective grounding
c. Switching orders
d. Electrical protective equipment and other protective equipment
Session 2- Substation Inspection and Testing Basics
- Substation inspections
a. Substation inspection protocols
b. Reading loads on feeders, record and reset relay target. electrical wiring diagrams
- Electrical equipment testing (Poll attendees prior to class for specific types)
a. Doble testing (power factor testing), winding testing, bushing testing, etc.
b. Oil tests- Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGS), Karl Fischer, PCB (including action levels), Furan testing, Heavy Metals, Inhibitor Concentration
c. Oil pressure charting
d. TTR test
e. Insulation Test
f. Excitation and Current Test
g. Step Voltage Test
h. Digital Low Resistance Ohm Meter
i. Infrared testing general overview
- Battery testing, maintenance and troubleshooting
- Breaker testing, maintenance and troubleshooting
a. Breaker diagrams
- SF6 gas testing
- Mobile Substation
Session 3- Substation Maintenance
- Circuit switcher troubleshooting and review of maintenance procedures
a. Other high side switching components
- Power transformer troubleshooting and review of maintenance procedures
a. High and low voltage of the unit
c. Alarm settings and their purpose
e. How to isolate and ground the transformer
g. Cooling system
h. Inhibitor System.
- LTC controls and settings troubleshooting and review of maintenance procedures
a. Oil filter systems
- Regulator troubleshooting and review of maintenance procedures
- Distribution level breaker troubleshooting and review of maintenance procedures
- PT & CT’s
Session 4- Substation Protection and Theory
- Substation protection equipment theory to include the following:
a. Protective relay design fundamentals- General overview
b. Balanced and unbalanced faults
c. Overcurrent protection
d. Differential relay.
e. Bus protection
f. Breaker failure relay.
g. Zone protection relay.
h. Carrier relay.
i. Transfer trip scheme.
j. Ground fault relay.